March 3, 2005
Peter Benenson: A Shining Light for Human Rights, by Jonathan Power. (International Herald Tribune)
'Better to light a candle than curse the darkness" was a guiding vision of Peter Benenson, the founder of Amnesty International, who died last Friday. To which I would add, quoting Nehru on hearing of Gandhi's assassination, "A light has gone out of our lives."
When Benenson was born, there was no Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Today we have nearly a hundred international agreements on all aspects of human rights - from abolishing torture to outlawing the trafficking of women and children. Human rights are now part of the world's common culture. Yet, to take issue with one of the most important documents in the human rights canon, the American Declaration of Independence, there is nothing "self-evident" about them. Jefferson himself was a slave owner.
Benenson certainly did not invent the cause of human rights. What he did in a stroke of genius was to popularize it and give it a political impact it had never possessed before. The idea of Amnesty International was the simplest of all ideas. That's why at first it passed many of us by. We spent our weekends marching around South Africa House in Trafalgar Square trying with our trumpets to blow the house down. Benenson that year - 1960 - was as usual commuting to his law office on the Tube, reading his newspaper, when he saw a small item about two Portuguese students who had been arrested in a bar after loudly and perhaps a little drunkenly toasting the cause of freedom. This was at the time of the Salazar dictatorship.
Benenson thought for a moment and took himself off to St. Martin in the Fields, the beautiful Christopher Wren church next to South Africa House. He sat there for nearly an hour and then the idea dawned. He wouldn't protest publicly. He would get a few friends together and bombard the Portuguese authorities with letters. It was, as Martin Ennals, a future Amnesty secretary general, observed later, "an amazing contention that prisoners of conscience could be released by writing letters to governments."
As Benenson nurtured the idea, it grew roots and branches in his mind. He thought, Why have just one campaign for one country? Why not a one-year campaign to draw attention to the plight of nonviolent political and religious prisoners throughout the world?
He persuaded his friend David Astor, editor of the British paper The Observer, to run a full-page article. Benenson conceived the "threes network" - each group of Amnesty supporters would adopt three prisoners and work for their release. One would be from a Communist country, one from the West and one from the third world. Le Monde carried its own piece, and the next day newspapers as diverse as The New York Herald Tribune, Die Welt and The Statesman of India took it up.
More than 40 years later, we can see what Amnesty succeeded in doing. Yes, it has successfully freed many political prisoners. Yes, it has built a membership of nearly two million activists all over the world - even in small up-country towns in places like Nigeria, where I have watched with astonishment their work in helping to pacify Muslim and Christian rioters. But out of these individual small-scale acts, it has shifted the political culture in a way we 60s protestors could never have done. Most important of all its victories was its success in persuading most of the world's nations to agree to the UN Convention Against Torture - which finally showed its teeth when the former Chilean dictator, Augusto Pinochet, was arrested in London in 1998.
Today when you open your paper and read a review of the film "Hotel Rwanda" or see that Croatia is in danger of losing the chance to enter the European Union because of its refusal to hand over a general to The Hague war crimes court or are confronted with revelations of American and British torture practices, you realize that while Benenson did not change the world, he didn't leave it as he found it either. More than ever, large numbers of people are conscious that we have a duty to work, as Benenson said, quoting Shakespeare, "against oblivion."
© 2005 IHT
"The Man who fought for the Forgotten", by Antony Barnett. (The Observer)
Peter Benenson, 1921-2005 Founder of Amnesty International.
There are not many newspaper articles that can genuinely claim to have changed the world for the better. But on Sunday, 28 May 1961, The Observer published a campaigning piece on the front of its Weekend Review section. The article was entitled 'The Forgotten Prisoners' and it was by Peter Benenson, a 33-year old Eton-educated London lawyer.
Benenson had been angered after learning about two Portuguese students who had been arrested and imprisoned for seven years after drinking a toast to liberty in a Lisbon cafe during the Salazar dictatorship. As Benenson later said: 'That so enraged me that I walked up the steps of St Martin-in-the-Fields, out of the Underground, and went in to see what could really be done effectively to mobilise world opinion.'
His solution seemed simple: to bombard the Portuguese regime with written protests. As Martin Ennals, a future Amnesty secretary-general observed later, it was 'an amazing contention that prisoners of conscience could be released by writing letters to governments'.
But rather than have just one campaign for one country, why not draw public attention to the plight of political and religious prisoners throughout the world? This was the basis of his Observer article, which took the shape of a series of letters published as an 'Appeal for Amnesty'.
His article began: 'Open your newspaper - any day of the week - and you will find a report from somewhere in the world of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government. The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust all over the world could be united into common action, something effective could be done.'
He could not have predicted how right he has proved to be. Benenson had intended his campaign to run for a year, but the response to his article was overwhelming.
The term 'prisoner of conscience', which he coined, soon became common currency and the movement's logo, a candle surrounded by barbed wire, became a worldwide symbol of hope.
Amnesty's campaigns have saved countless prisoners from torture or death. From South Africa, Chile and Uganda to Iraq, Burma and China, Amnesty's work has helped secure the release of political prisoners and highlighted human rights violations. Closer to home Amnesty has also been critical of policies of the former prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, and more recently Tony Blair's anti-terrorist legislation.
Irene Khan, its present secretary general, said yesterday: 'His vision gave birth to human rights activism. Peter Benenson's life was a courageous testament to his visionary commitment to fight injustice around the world. He brought light into the darkness of prisons, the horror of torture chambers and tragedy of death camps around the world. 'This was a man whose conscience shone in a cruel and terrifying world, who believed in the power of ordinary people to bring about extraordinary change and, by creating Amnesty International, he gave each of us the opportunity to make a difference.'
The Leader of the House of Commons, Peter Hain, a long-time campaigner against the former apartheid regime in South Africa, led the political tributes last night. 'He lit a torch for human rights which Amnesty International has kept burning across the world in being constantly vigilant about abuses,' Hain said.
In Amnesty's first few years Benenson's energy was vital to its success. He provided much of its funding and was involved in all aspects of the organisation. 'At that time we were still putting our toes in the water and learning as we went on,' he later said. 'We tried every technique of publicity and we were very grateful for the widespread help of journalists and television crews throughout the world who not only sent us information about the names of prisoners but also, whenever they could, gave space to stories about prisoners.'
Amnesty's membership is now more than a million, with supporters in more than 160 countries and territories. It has dealt with the cases of 47,000 prisoners of conscience and other victims of human rights violation. More than 45,000 of these are now closed. In 1977 Amnesty International was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its tireless fight against injustice.
Former prisoner of conscience Julio de Pena Valdez, a trade union leader in the Dominican Republic, has spoken of the impact of an Amnesty letter-writing campaign. 'When the 200 letters came, the guards gave me back my clothes. Then the next 200 letters came and the prison director came to see me. When the next pile of letters arrived, the director got in touch with his superior. The letters kept coming and coming - 3,000 of them. The president was informed. 'The letters still kept arriving and the president called the prison and told them to let me go.'
Benenson was born on 31 July 1921, the grandson of the Russian-Jewish banker Grigori Benenson. He later converted to Catholicism. He was tutored privately by WH Auden, then went to Eton and Oxford, where he studied history. His flair for controversy emerged early, when his complaint to the headmaster of Eton about the poor quality of the school's food prompted a letter to his mother warning of her son's 'revolutionary tendencies. At age 16, he launched his first campaign: to get school support, during the Spanish Civil War, for the newly-formed Spanish Relief Committee which was helping Republican war orphans. He himself 'adopted' one of the babies, helping to pay for its support.
His concern about political imprisonment and mistreatment was inspired by Arthur Koestler's Spanish Testament, which described the horrors of imprisonment and threatened execution by the Fascists. It was this concern that led to his next campaign - the plight of Jews who had fled from Hitler's Germany. Despite some opposition, he succeeded in getting his school friends and their families to raise £4,000 to bring two young German Jews to Britain.
After leaving Eton, he helped his politically committed mother find homes in various countries for refugee children who arrived in London. The Trades Union Congress sent him to Spain as its observer at the trials of trade unionists in the early Fifties. He was appalled by what he saw in the courtrooms and in the prisons. In one instance he was so outraged by the proceedings that he drew up a list of complaints with which he confronted the trial judge over dinner. The trial ended with acquittals, a rarity in fascist Spain.
Benenson, who had been ill for some time, died on Friday evening at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford.
Lighting a candle in St Martin-in-the Fields church to mark the twentieth anniversary of Amnesty, he said: 'I have lit this candle, in the words of Shakespeare, 'against oblivion' - so that the forgotten prisoners should always be remembered. We work in Amnesty against oblivion.'
by Jonathan Power, Antony Barnett